Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation
30:2 - A step by step guide to a potential life-saving technique
The main priority of conducting CPR on an unconscious casualty who is not breathing is to restore the flow of oxygenated blood to the vital organs - the brain and the heart and to maintain a shockable rhythm whilst a defibrillator arrives.
Remember not to put yourself in danger first
1. Prior to commencing CPR perform a Primary Survey - D.R.A.B (Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing). Conducting the Primary Survey minimises danger to yourself and others around you, and establishes whether the casualty is breathing or not breathing normally.
2. If you find yourself alone and don't have a mobile phone available, leave the casualty to call an ambulance and grab a defibrillator. It goes without saying if a bystander is available to instruct them at first instance, whilst you prepare to commence CPR.
3. Once it's been established the casualty is not breathing normally commence CPR. For a casualty breathing normally post Primary Survey conduct a Secondary Survey.
Adult CPR Protocols
1. Start with 30 chest compressions.
- Place the heel of one hand in the center of the casualty's chest
- Place the other hand on top of your hand you've placed on the center of the casualty and interlock your fingers
- Lock your elbows and begin to compress the chest at a depth of 5-6 centimeters, 30 times aiming for a compression rate of 100-120 per minute
2. Once 30 chest compressions have been administered give 2 rescue breaths
- Place one hand on the casualty's forehead
- Place the other hand under the chin and tilt the head back to open the casualty's airway
- Keep the hand under the chin and use your other hand to pinch the casualty's nose
- Using a mouth guard if available seal around the casualty's mouth with yours and blow for no more than a second, whilst observing the rise and fall of the chest.
- Repeat for a total of two rescue breaths for every 30 chest compressions.
3. Continue CPR until the casualty shows signs of normal breathing or medical help arrives. If you feel fatigued enough unable to continue then ask the bystander to take over.